SYSTEMIC, TISSUE AND CELLULAR REACTION PREVENTING AND/OR REDUCING DAMAGE IN CASE OF OXYGEN DEFICIENCY

The article discusses the mechanisms of continuous monitoring of the arterial blood oxygen level, the reactions of chemoreceptors and reflex reactions of respiration, blood circulation and nervous systems to the oxygen content changes in the lungs and arterial blood. It is assumed that with an oxygen level decrease a multi-link functional system (FS) is formed in the body represented by reflex mechanisms and other mechanisms of respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems. The FS activity is aimed at achieving the final useful result – the restoration of the arterial blood normal oxygen content. Under conditions of a longer hypoxia, additional links are included in the FS structure – an increase in the oxygen capacity of the blood, formation of new blood vessels and cellular-molecular mechanisms for the oxygen deficiency compensation and adaptation to hypoxia. It is assumed and demonstrated by several examples that the links and mechanisms should not just interact within the one FS but, according to P. K. Anokhin’s words who has developed the foundations of the FS theory, they should mutually assist each other in achieving the final useful result. Modern ideas about the mechanisms of the brain cells damage and adaptation under conditions of short-term and long-term oxygen deficiency and about the mechanisms of hypoxic and pharmacological pre- and postconditioning used to prevent and reduce the degree of hypoxic and reperfusion injuries are considered.

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Автор(ы): A. I. Kubarko