The article presents current data on the etiopathogenetic factors of perinatal central nervous system (CNS) pathology; the connections between neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and apoptosis of brain neurons in children is reviewed. Apoptosis is crucial for normal brain development and determines the further development of the central nervous system. The article describes the main pathways of apoptosis in cells of the nervous system, pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death. Gene families with both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic properties are considered. The polymorphism of apoptosis genes, the time of exposure to damaging factors and the activity of repair processes determine the clinical outcome after birth asphyxia. They are the basis for therapeutic interventions. The article presents the most effective treatment options for brain damage after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Results of the study of the role of proapoptotic, neurotrophic and growth factors in children with сentral nervous system dysfunction in the perinatal period are shown in this article.

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Автор(ы): D. Y. Nikitchanka, M. G. Devyaltovskaya